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The Second Mass and Its Fighting Californians

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 The Diary of Valorus Dearborn

Corporal Dearborn's diary is a black leather-bound book measuring 2" X 4". Attached to the back cover is a frayed bit of ribbon which served to tie the book closed. An ivory tipped pencil remains attached, held in place by a leather thong.  A pocket inside the front cover contains two folded pieces of paper. One is a return receipt for a registered letter mailed to Susan Brackett. The other contains a message written in blue ink - 
"Every wife and sister's heart is beating warm and true. Draw the sword for us and we'll keep the needle bright for you."  
It is signed by Josephine Call of Boston and may be a souvenir from a party held for the men in Company A prior to their departure for Virginia.

The first pages of the diary are printed with a full page calendar for the year 1864, followed by twelve pages which depict detailed phases of the moon, eclipses, etc. by month. Another page lists all Sundays for the year and another notes postage rates, "domestic 3 for letters, foreign 24 to Great Britain." Additional pages allow for financial records but Valorus typically made daily mention of these incidentals at the beginning of his entries.

It was small enough to fit into the pocket of his tunic and returned home with his remains after his death. The diary ultimately became the property of his brother, Charles Dearborn who in turn passed it to his daughter, Edna Dearborn Gould, mother of the current owner of the diary, Geraldine Dearborn Gould Chase. 

For 1864

Corporal Valorus Dearborn
Vienna, Virginia
2nd Regiment Massachusetts Cavalry
Company A - 1862 - 1864

 
January 1, Friday
Rec. of Capt. Reed $10.00
Again has another year commenced to join its ages with the past and the record of the old year is written with all its joys and sorrows. Who can read its record and not feel a sickening pang run through his veins to learn the deed of death that has been perpetrated in our once happy land. Many a brave and noble heart has been erased from the book of time and now stands before its Maker - there to await its final sentence. May God be merciful to such and may their faith shine forth like a star in the final day. May He speed the day when traitors and secessionists shall be crushed and our noble union be again restored to its once peaceful position.
The Regt has been mustered for pay.
To work for the Captain, his wife came to Camp.

January 2, Saturday
For boots and stamps $7.25
General inspection of arms and quarters by Capt. Adams.
Nothing of importance in Camp today. The weather is cold and the boys have kept to their tents most of the day.
I have done little except write to Sue.

January 3, Sunday
Weather clear and cool.
Sergeants Wheat and Allen took their departure for Boston. They are to receive a commission in the 4th Mass. Cav. (Black Regt).
The QM stores are turned over to Sergeant Sterling. The change is not much to the benefit of camp.
All quiet in Vienna.
Have written to Father and Mary.

January 4, Monday
Tyler assumed command.
Dress parade on foot at half past nine a.m. After it was dismissed we drilled the Sabre exercise.
We are having a snow storm this afternoon - the first of the season.
Received letter from Sue. How I wish her wishes could be met and I could be with her for a short time. How hard it is to be separated from one's truest friends. How long, oh God, wilt thou have it thus?

January 5, Tuesday
Weather fine and pleasant and everything is quite cheerful.
The boys are stockading the stable. I worked with them in the afternoon and we closed it up. Received a letter from McCrillis. He wished me to think of a com and go in with him. Nothing would afford me more pleasure than to join him in this strife. I know his worth.

January 6, Wednesday
Weather cool and pleasant.
Some signs of a storm. Built a stall for my horse. Nothing of importance in camp. Afternoon, wrote to George McCrillis and Sue. Bumgardner is promoted to corporal by Capt. Washburn, Conn. company.
Armstrong is made 1st Lieut. of Co. L.

January 7, Thursday
For apples 10
Rec. for repairing saw for Cook 70
Weather sharp and cool. Some signs of snow. Filed saw and rep. frame for the cook at the officer's mess.
Maj. F was brought in a prisoner of war. Papers revealing the position of our camp were found on his person.
Lieut. Sims moved in with Capt. Rumery. Rec. letters from Frank and Ern.

January 8, Friday
Weather fine and pleasant.
Have been to work for Lieut. Armstrong, etc. Nothing of interest in Camp today. Everything quiet and progressing after the old still. Towle is returned to duty. Snow storm last evening.

January 9, Saturday
Spent 10
Weather fine and bracing - regular downeast weather. Have been to work on the Lieut's tent. Lieut. Meader is 2nd Lieut. of Co. A and Poe of Co. E.
All quiet in camp.
Corp Sherwin has gone to Alexandria.

January 10, Sunday
Weather fine and pleasant.
Co. inspection at 10 o'clock. Lieut Meader read the articles of war. Wrote to John and Sue.
Read The Drummer Boy - is the story of the drummer's expedition by the author of "Father Right Hopes".
All quiet in camp.

January 11, Monday
Spent for hinges (Armstrong) 35
Weather fine and pleasant.
All quiet in camp. Made door etc. for Armstrong. Hilliard is fined ten dollars and returned to duty. His sentence was read at retreat. Also another order for the Stable guard. Rec. letters from Sue and Albert. Heard this evening that there has been an order to grant no more furloughs.

January 12, Tuesday
For razor 75
Inspection, or rather dress parade on foot at quarter past nine a.m. Afternoon made table for Armstrong. A detail left camp at 6 p.m. with two day's rations. Nothing of interest today Wrote to Albert and Woodman.

January 13, Wednesday
(Barnes died)
Weather fine and with some sign of rain.
Dress parade and Sabre drill at 9 A.M. Carbine drill by Capt. Addams at 2 p.m., a very good exercise Fletcher is made Cpl. from Dec. 1st, Bumgardner Jan. 1st.
The Scouts returned this evening with 4 prisoners. Another detail went out soon after they arrived. Had my horse shod.

January 14, Thursday
For apples 10
Weather warm and it is getting quite thawing.
Nothing of importance in camp. Last night 15 horses were stolen from the Brigade, a bold trick for someone. Have been busy making Sabre knots. Presented one to Sergeant Davis. Evening orders to pack three days for a.m. and be ready for moving at any moment.

January 15, Friday
Weather warm and travelling hot.
A brigade drill by the 2nd M and 13th NY Cav. Col. Lowell commanded. No news of interest. Details have been going out all day. Nearly every duty man in Co. A is out and still they come.

January 16, Saturday
Bumgardner left on furlough. On stable guard. The first guard I have stood for over two months. It seems quite a novelty to walk a beat. Nothing of interest in camp. The details with three days' rations returned to camp late this evening. They have been doing picket duty in the direction of Warrenton Station. The object was to note the movements of a rebel force reported in that direction. They brought in one prisoner that had taken French leave from Leesburg Rgt. of the 45.

January 17, Sunday
Weather fine but travelling is rather nasty.
Have been to Fairfax C. H. with prisoners that belong to the 2nd DCV. There were eight. They have been arrested for desertion. All quiet in camp. Last eve to arms was sounded about ten o'clock. It proved to be false.

January 18, Monday
It has stormed a perfect shower all day.
Filed a saw. Nothing of interest in camp. The Flint Hill picket was attacked last eve. No one was harmed on our side. Applied to the Cap't for a furlough. He thinks I can have one in about six weeks.

January 19, Tuesday
For Pencil 12
The storm ceased last night and the wind has blown hard all day. Have been reading John Brent by Winthrop. It is a very interesting work. Wrote to Sue. Evening wrote to Ern.
 
January 20, Wednesday
Weather warm and pleasant.
Brigade drill in forenoon commanded by Maj. from the 13 N. Y. Cav. It passed off well. Afternoon worked in Armstrong's tent. We made a bootjack for Cap't Washburn.
January 21, Thursday
Brigade inspection at 10 a.m. by Capt. Demerit. To work at the depot for the cook. Last eve three horses were taken from Co. B and a prisoner escaped from the guard house. Drew a pair of pants 3.55 and a Blouse 3.12.

January 22, Friday
A fine and pleasant day.
It seems more like spring than the dead of winter. Brigade drill in forenoon commanded by Col. Lowell. Nothing of interest in camp.

January 23, Saturday
Fine and warm.
Have been at the Blacksmith all day in charge of horses for the Company. Had seven shod. All quiet in camp.
The Doctor and Maj. Frazier tried the speed of their horses. The doctor's came out winner. Rec'd letters from Sue and McCrillis.

January 24, Sunday
Review by Col. Lowell in forenoon. Afternoon attended church and wrote to Sue. Weather warm and lovely. 72 recruits arrived today - fifteen of them quartered with Co. A. Corp. Hilliard left camp on furlough.

January 25, Monday
Spent for sundries 1.75
Left camp with condemned horse for Leesborough 9 a.m. Arrived at the Corral 2 p.m. After turning over the horse we took the boat to the city. Took lunch at the retreat. Evening went to Grove Theater. Old Abe's family was there. Took lodging at the Robinson Dining Saloon.
Rec of Cap't Reed 5.15.

January 26, Tuesday
Spent 45
9 a.m. we cross over to the Point. Drew 100 horses after dinner and started for camp 2 p.m. Arrived Georgetown at sundown. Rec. the Government forms 8 p.m. Here we remained until an escort came. It is a splendid evening, warm and bright.

January 27, Wednesday
Prepared for a General Review by Auger. It proved a humbug. Auger did not come to see us. We have orders to Brighten our equipment, belts, etc. Worked on them in forenoon. Afternoon worked for Lt. Alvord, Provost Marshal. Gen. Tyler has been in camp.

January 28, Thursday
Spent 10
Weather fine and lovely.
It has been uncomfortably warm. The rain is dried up and camp is quite cheerful. Have been to work for the Provost marshal.
Gen Auger and Tyler have been in Camp. The boys were all ready for a review but there was none. A Scout left camp in a.m. One of White's men came in and gave himself up, horse and all.

January 29, Friday
Spent for cutting hair 45
Weather fine.
Have been to work for the Provost M. Nothing of interest in Camp. The Scout returned last night without any prisoners. They went in the vicinity of Bull Run.
January 30, Saturday
Weather dark and wet.
Attended church in forenoon. Wrote to Father, Sue and McCrillis. Nothing of interest in Camp. All quiet. Private West goes to the city with the mail in place of Winship who is unfit for duty.

February 1, Monday
Weather dark and murky but not cold.
Have been reading all day (Kate Castleton). Nothing of interest in camp. All quiet. Received a letter from Sue, Dear friend. How I would like to see her. She is all that I could wish - kind and patient, ever ready to forgive and cheer those who are oppressed. May God less you, darling, and keep you unspotted from the world.
Hase, Co. A. deserted.

February 2, Tuesday
For red ink 25
Weather more pleasant. The sun is shining and it is quite cheerful.
Built bunk for the Provost Marshal. Wrote to Albert. Nothing of interest in camp. Old Abe has issued a call for 500,000 more men. I wonder if this won't make somebody's eyes stick out. Dress parade and drill in forenoon. Bumgardner returned from his furlough.

February 3, Wednesday
For stamps 25
Rec'd of Alvoid 5.00
Showers last evening accompanied with lightning.
Finished Lieut. Alvoid's tent and built table for Mrs. Reed. Nothing of interest in camp. No signs of the Paymaster as yet.

February 4, Thursday
Weather cool and bright.
2nd Battalion has gone out with three days rations under command of Capt. Reed. Put in glass, etc. for Capt. Reed. All quiet in camp.

February 5, Friday
Weather fine and pleasant.
All quiet in camp. Fixed stall for Lieut. Meader. Took ride in afternoon. Wrote to Sue in the evening.

February 6, Saturday
Sent for Caseys tickets. Private Jones, Co. L was buried this afternoon. Was at the funeral.
The 2nd Bat. returned to camp this evening. They brought with them Private Omsby of Co. E who deserted from his post at Lewinsville some two weeks ago. He led a charge on the guard of the column while passing through Aldie. The court was called together this eve to examine his case. (Dress Parade)

February 7, Sunday
Fur butter, washing etc. 75
Weather dark and cloudy.
Inspection of arms and quarters at 9 a.m. At eleven a.m. the Brigade was formed on the sides of a hollow square to witness the execution of Private Wm. Omsby Co. E, 2nd Mass. Cav., who was sentenced to be shot for deserting to the enemy. He bore it bravely. He died at half past twelve with two bullets in his left breast. Sad, sad, indeed.
Wrote to Em.

February 8, Monday
Weather pleasant.
Left Camp with condemned horses for Leesburg 7 a.m. Forbes accompanied us with two teams. Arrived at the Corrals about 1 p.m. After drawing our horses and having a desperate struggle with them through the woods and frightening everybody from the streets, we arrived at our stopping place, H St. Stables, about 9 in the evening. Stopped at the Soule home.

February 9, Tuesday
For apples 50
Started from H St. Stables with our horses 7 a.m., and with very little trouble arrived at Camp a little past noon. Found everything the same as we left, with the exception of the addition of a few recruits.
Hussey and Owen promoted to Sgt., Anthony and Smith to Corp.

February 10, Wednesday
Spent 20
A little cool today.
Dress parade and brigade drill in forenoon. Sabre exercise in forenoon. Fixed Sabre knot for Towle. Nothing of interest in Camp. Capt. Washburn bid adieu to Camp at Vienna and started for Boston. Rec. letter from Em.

February 11, Thursday
Weather fine and pleasant.
Dress parade and sabre drill in forenoon. Afternoon Co. A took charge of the camp picket. The whole camp is on. Nothing of interest in Camp. All quiet. Private Woodward left on furlough this afternoon.

February 12, Friday
Spent 25
Weather fine and pleasant.
Co. A is on Camp picket. I have been working to fix bunk in the guard house. Co. B relieved us at 2 p.m. A report is in Camp that Col. Lowell is ordered to report at headquarters to command the dismounted camp as Brigadier Gen. All quiet in Camp.

February 13, Saturday
For fixing Foster's saw Rec. 25
Dress parade and drill in forenoon by Maj. Crowningshield. Afternoon prepared for mounted inspection. Corp. Hilliard returned from furlough.

February 14, Sunday
Spent 15
Quite warm and pleasant.
Dress parade and inspection at 9 a.m. by Maj. Crowningshield. He complimented Co. A. very highly on their good looks. They were satisfactory in every respect.
Attended church in the afternoon. Sgt. Coults Co. L is promoted to Lieut. No letters today. It is hard to wait so long but I suppose it is no use to worry. If they wont write they wont.

February 15, Monday
Rec for filing saw 25
Weather dark and cloudy. Snowstorm in afternoon.
Dress parade and drill in forenoon by Maj. Crowningshield. Col. Lowell is ordered to Washington. Col of the 16th takes command of this Brigade.
Drew 1 pair of D. and 1 undershirt. Sturling left for Boston. Wrote to X. Rec. letter from Sue. Sad.

February 16, Tuesday
Was routed this morning to prepare for a scout.
Cos. A and B of the 2nd and a portion of the 18th left Camp at reveille for Leesburg. Passed Watersville and approached the pike near Drainsville, then proceeded direct to Leesburg. Arrived there a little past noon. Found all quiet.
The cause of this trip was a report that 900 rebs were near that place. After ascertaining the facts we returned direct to camp. It was so cold when we arrived in camp our boots were frozen to the stirrups.

February 17, Wednesday
Tremendous cold. We have had nothing so severe this winter. But few have ventured forth except they were on duty. Nothing of interest in camp. Sgt. McIntosh promoted to 2nd Lieut. of Co. D.

February 18, Thursday
Spent for fire 25
Weather still cold and severe.
Monthly inspection at 10 a.m. by Capt. Demerit, acting inspector Gen. All was satisfactory in Co. A. Built bunk for McIntosh.

February 19, Friday
Weather clear but cool.
All quiet in camp. Rec. letter from Mary.

February 20, Saturday
For washing, etc. 25
Quite pleasant and warm. Dress parade and Squadron Drill in forenoon. Nothing of interest in camp. Do. B, E and M have gone out on a scout under command of Capt. Reed. Wrote to Mary.

February 21, Sunday
For butter 50
Very pleasant and warm.
Co. inspection at 9 a.m. Attended church in forenoon. Co. A goes on picket. Col. Lowell is in camp.

February 22, Monday
On picket today at Hunter Mill Post. At retreat came news to camp that Capt. Reed's command was all cut to pieces. The fight occurred at 11 a.m. and about 1 miles above Drainsville. Cos B, E and M were scattered in every direction.
The enemy's loss is not known. Our loss is 11 killed (including Capt. Reed). 11 Wounded and 69 Missing.
Corp. Manning is among the prisoners. Co. A arrived on the ground about 9 p.m. Capt. Reed was stripped of everything but his
(Monday's entry continued on Tuesday)

February 23, Tuesday
undershirt and draws. It is a hard case for Mrs. Reed. She had his body sent to Washington soon after it arrived at Camp, to be embalmed. After collecting our dead and wounded we started for Camp. Arrived there about 10 a.m. tired and sleepy.
The rebel force is estimated to be 5 to 7 hundred while ours was not over 150 all told. It was an uneven handed fight. Our men had but little show.

February 24, Wednesday
Weather fine and pleasant.
Co. A and the remainder of Co. E left Camp at 10 a.m. for the battleground. Proceeding to W Mill we arrived at Drainsville about noon. Received intelligence here that the enemy 300 strong crossed Goose Creek last night and were waiting to give us a warm reception.
Charly B...acting as guide prepared to return to Camp through the woods. We left the pike and turned in the direction of the Potomac. After securing B...'s horse and pursuing a round-about way we arrived at Camp soon after dark.

February 25, Thursday
(Mrs. Reed left for Boston)
The Brigade left Camp this morning on a scout. Took the A and L pike for Drainsville. Found all quiet here and passed on to the Cottage near Goose Crick. Fed horses here after which we left the pike, passed through Green Springs over Centerville Heights, from there to Camp.
Arrived at Camp a little past midnight. Have been on the advance all day. The only excitement of the day was just before we reached Centerville, caused by lights imitating camp fires. We have marched some 50 miles today.

February 26, Friday
For pencil 20
Windy and disagreeable.
The paymaster is in Camp. Signed the payrolls. Nothing of interest in Camp.
At 7 p.m. Lieut. Sims called a meeting of the Camp to settle the question in regard to the fund. It is a bad mess and I think we shall find it so before it is settled. Sims is bound to have it turned over to Mrs. Reed without a settlement. This won't answer as some have drawn over their account and some have drawn scarcely any.

February 27, Saturday
Rec. of Government $60.85
Quite pleasant today.
Dress parade at 9 a.m. by Maj. Forbes. Afternoon Co. A goes on picket. A new post is put on the Hunter Mill road. Wrote to Sue.

February 28, Sunday
Mustered for pay by Maj. Forbes.
All quiet in camp. Cos. A and B of the 2nd and a portion of the 19th N.Y. left Camp at 9 in the evening on a Doboy trip. We took the Alexandria and Leesburg pike and proceeded as far as Union Church We separated here. The 19th crossed over to the Georgetown picket and the 2nd remained near the church.
Everything is quiet. Capt. Addams is in command. Commenced to snow about ten in the evening.

March 1, Tuesday
Morning finds the ground white and the boys covered with snow. Some three inches fell during the night. At 5 a.m. we moved back into woods some 300 yards from the pike and built fires to cook our breakfast and warm ourselves by. It being a nasty day the Capt. thinks it best to remain quiet which motion was sanctioned by all.
We remained in the woods til 4 p.m. then took up our quarters in the Church. There being no stove we collected the piles of dirt on the floor and built our fire on them. This proved more satisfactory than the woods and we spent the night out without suffering much.
Kilpatrick is reported to be in Richmond.

March 2, Wednesday
For butter 30
Union Church, VA.
The storm has passed and this morning finds everything bright and lovely. It is warm and it bids for to be a good day.
9 a.m. left the Church for camp. Arrived there at 11 a.m. Found everything quiet. The Cavalry returned to camp at Taps last evening.
(am returned to duty)
Sergts Davis and Percy left for Boston yesterday. They are to receive a commission in the 4th Mass.

March 3, Thursday
For bread, etc. 90
All quiet in camp. Co. A goes on picket. Acted as Cap.

March 4, Friday
Weather fine and pleasant.
Am reading "The Cloister and the Hearth" (Reade). Relieved from picket 3 p.m. No news from home.

March 5, Saturday
Spent 15
Am detailed for Lieut. Brown by orders of Col. Largelle act. Brig'd. Made bulletin board for Adj. Gen. One of the 16th shot himself by accident. Wrote to father and Frank. Rec. letter from Frank.

March 6, Sunday
Weather dark and cloudy.
Co. inspection at 9 a.m. Johnson has gone to the City. Wrote to Mary and Sue.

March 7, Monday
Spent 15
Sent Sue fifty dollars. Weather fine and pleasant. The first Battalion has orders to move to M.D. Completed McIntosh's Sabre knot. Co. A goes on picket a.m. post six. Goulding has gone to the City.

March 8, Tuesday
For registering letter 25
Storming most of the day.
Cos. B, D, E & M left for Muddy Branch. Relieved from picket half past three p.m. All quiet in camp.

March 9, Wednesday
Weather fine and warm.
Sims took count of stock (ordinance). Co. A goes on picket. Serg't Burlingham has returned to the Co. and is acting 2nd L.

March 10, Thursday
a.m. on post one.
Serg't Locke returned with Baker who left the Co. at Readville. He was on his way to Texas with NY Reg't.
The Co. rec. a box from Charlestown. Serg't Hussy left on furlough. Private Loane returned.
Dream: They, S. and E, were dressed in a riding habit and looked the loveliest ever. How I longed to make myself known and share their respects but dared not for my humble attire. I trust I was seen and recognized but was selfish and withheld. Oh that I had the confidence of other men and could step forward at the proper time. Would that she were mine, mine own.

March 11, Friday
For dipper 30
Lieut. Dabney promoted to Capt. Also Lieut. Manning. Serg't Patrick of Co. E to 2nd Lieut. He is officer of the guard. Co. A goes on picket - a.m. on patrol. Dabney is officer of the day.

March 12, Saturday
For cups 10
Weather fine and lovely.
On patrol. Took a lunch at Mr. Crocker's near Hunter Mill. They are tip top people. Powers, Goulding and Ackerman are under arrest, only they ...... .......
A part of the 16th and the remainder of our Reg't left camp on a Scout. Mosby is reported to have attacked the twelfth NY Cos. and cleaned them out (near G. C.). We have to stand picket 24 hours longer. Am on the Hunter Mill post. Private McCarroll Co. H 16th NY Cav. came in past my post. He ran the guard and has been at Leesburg.

March 13, Sunday
Warm and pleasant.
All quiet in Camp. Relieved from picket at 2 p.m. The scout returned in the evening. No letter. What does it all mean? Is there not one spark of love left? Has she entirely forsaken me? Does she connect me with the worthless? How can I bear this neglect?
The world looks dark and dreary. The whole future lies in obscurity and life seems worthless. I cannot think her false. No, I will not believe her other than she said. But how can she be so cruel. God forbid.

March 14, Monday
Spent 10
Very pleasant for the season.
Quietness prevails in camp. Afternoon went to Chain Bridge after baggage for the 3rd Battalion which came from Muddy Branch today. Arrived at camp 10 p.m.
Promotions
Serg't: Hilliard, Fletcher and Benjamin
Corp: Crumpton, Crown and Hanscom
Robinson and Crumpton left on furlough.

March 15, Tuesday
Quite pleasant. Warm with a fresh breeze.
Put in glass for the officers - remained quiet the rest of the day. Rec. letter from Mary. Answered the same.

March 16, Wednesday
Quiet and pleasant.
Prepared for inspection in forenoon. Afternoon went on Camp Guard, Post five. Nothing of interest in Camp. (C D Sect. and Co., Cartridge Factory in Springfield, N. H. exploded.)
 

March 17, Thursday
Monthly inspection 10 a.m. Relieved from guard half past one p.m. Took the two best shots with the revolver at 35 paces. All quiet in camp. Rec. letter from Sue with not a single word to cheer this lonely heart. What can prompt her to write thus is a mystery to be unfolded. Dark days are these that no man....... . Major Crowningshield was promoted to Lieut. Col.

March 18, Friday
Quietness prevails.
On camp picket or rather Patrol. Braided sabre knot. Rec. receipt for registered letter to Sue. She received it on the 14th.

March 19, Saturday
Relived from picket 2 p.m. All quiet. A scout left Camp this evening with three day's rations. Plummer is made Serg't. Rec. letters from Frank and Mother.

March 20, Sunday
For stamps 25
Inspection at 10 a.m. Attended church at 11. Went on picket at 2 p.m. Doane rec. his commission first lieut. in the Marine Cav. Collins rec. Sec. Lieut. Com. in a N.Y. reg't. Wrote to Frank and Mother. A part of the Scout came in with 13 prisoners. Another detail left this evening.

March 21, Monday
For cheese 30
Weather cool.
The rebel prisoners were sent to Alexandria today. Lieut. Allan and Serg't. Woodman were in camp this morning. Lent Woodman $5.00. They returned to Washington. The Scout returned to camp this afternoon. Rec. letter from Sue.

March 22, Tuesday
Weather cool and rainy.
Am guard for wood Teams. Last evening the Surgeon of the 13th was shot by one of the pickets. He was dizzy headed at the time. Evening it commenced to snow and continued through the night.
 

March 23, Wednesday
Weather is warm and pleasant but the ground is covered with Seven inches of Snow. It looks rather dubious for the season.
Nothing of importance in camp. Collins left Camp for good. On guard post three. Sherwin received a letter from Mrs. Reed.

March 24, Thursday
Relieved from guard 1 p.m. A scout left camp about 11 in the evening with no rations. Capt. McCarty returned to Camp. All quiet in camp.

March 25, Friday
Weather dark and windy. Commenced to rain about noon and continued through the night.
It is a powerful and tremendous night for the pickets. (A false alarm.) On stable guard. (Sea watch.) Nothing of interest in camp. Woodman returned from M.D. He is to remain with his Camp.

March 26, Saturday
For washing 10
Weather dark and stormy.
A false alarm on the Hunter Mill post 2 o'clock this morning. All quiet in camp. Rec. of Woodman $5.00. Locke presented to us Mrs. Reed's statement of the Co. fund.

March 27, Sunday
Spent 20
Weather fine and pleasant and the mud is disappearing fast.
Co. inspection at 9 a.m. Nothing of importance in Camp - all quiet. I would like to look in unbeknown and see what is going on at home. I don't think they are aware how lonesome it is here. If they did they would not keep as silent as they do. O, Sue, why do you seek to punish me thus. I wish you would Write.
On camp guard.

March 28, Monday
Spent 10
Wrote to Sue. Weather fine. Dress parade (foot) and drill at 9 a.m. (Promotions of Co. A read) Relieved from guard 1 p.m. Some 100 horses came to the Reg't. Received letter from McCrillis. He is at home sick. Answered same. Applied to Lieut. Col. Crowningshield for a furlough.

March 29, Tuesday
Spent 10
Weather dark and cloudy.
Commenced to rain at dusk - turned to snow. Dress parade and drill at 9 a.m. (foot). Have been to work on a wooden block.

March 30, Wednesday
Spent 10
Stormy and disagreeable weather.
It ceased raining after dinner and left the streets knee-deep with mud. Went on Camp picket at 2 p.m. Dranesville Post. All quiet in camp. Capt. R. W. Smith takes com'd of Co. A.

March 31, Thursday
Weather dark and cloudy. No rain.
All quiet on post. Dress parade (mounted) and drill. A committee of three, Demerit, Dabney and Phillips took an invoice of the Camp Ordinance, etc. This is to be turned over to Capt. Smith. Received a letter from Albert - answered same.

April 1, Friday
Serg't Hussey departed after noon. Benjamin left on furlough. Weather cloudy and commenced to rain soon after dinner.
Have been to work on log hut for the S..... etc. Lieut. Davis returned to Camp Shining like a gold dollar. He is authorized by Mrs. Reed to settle the Comp. fund. The Comp. was called together at 8 o'clock in the evening to take such measures as they deemed necessary. The Comp. voted to accept Mrs. Reed's statements as being as near correct as circumstances will admit. After this they voted that a paper be drawn up and each member appropriate as much as he saw fit to on Walter Reed, Capt. Reed's son, he being a cripple and bids fair to remain one through life. Looking upon this as being a noble tribute I placed opposite my name $10.00.

April 2, Saturday
It is snowing today - very disagreeable weather.
Forenoon worked on bunk. 2 p.m. went on Camp picket - or rather patrol. Lieut. Doane left camp for the last time.

April 3, Sunday
For washing, etc. 20
Relieved from picket 2 p.m. Col C. R. Lowell returned to Vienna, Va. to take com'd of the forces. Thirty recruits came to the Reg't. Robinson returned from furlough.

April 4, Monday
Weather dark and rainy.
All quiet in camp. 2 p.m. Orders came for a Scout. Some 200 men left camp under command of Maj. Frazier by way of Hunter Mill for Chantilla. After a march of six hours we arrived at Chantilla. The 2nd remained here while the Maj.., etc. proceeded on to Centerville. I spent the night on Stuart Farm. It was tough - dark, cold and wet - the worst night I have experienced for along time. No fires to sit by and no chance to sleep. Crum shot a deserter at 4 p.m.

April 5, Tuesday
Still it rains and no prospect of its clearing up.
After several trials we succeeded in cooking a little coffee which added greatly to our internal welfare. About 10 a.m. a dispatch came for the NY to report to Centerville. Also at 12 noon received orders for the 2nd to report there with the exception of 10 men to wait for dispatches from Camp. On arrival at Centerville we made ourselves as comfortable as possible in the Old Tavern (horses and all), a desperate nightmare...

April 6, Wednesday
For apples 15
...but the hardy soldiers wouldn't think of buffering the Storm King that howls without. The night is past but still we have to wait further orders. 9 a.m. assembly sounded and we moved toward camp which we reached toward noon.
Found everything quiet. Plummer left on furlough. Johnson is detailed as teamster. Lee returned from furlough.
 

April 7, Thursday
Weather fine and pleasant.
Had my horse shod in forenoon. 2 p.m. went on patrol. Major Forbes is Officer of the Day.

April 8, Friday
For shirt 55
Bugler Lee died last night in the Hospital. Still God's work goes on and man must die. How true it is, ye know not the day nor the hour the son of man cometh.
Woodward rec. a commission in 25 NY Cav.

April 9, Saturday
Weather rainy in afternoon.
A scout left camp about 10 a.m. Dress parade at 9 a.m. by Maj. Forbes. Corp. Crum for a slight offense was dismounted and had to pack his saddle to the Maj., then down the line. Noble hearted Forbes. Who wouldn't growl to be under command of such an officer. Filed saw for the butcher.

April 10, Sunday
Spent 20
Weather fair and clearing.
Camp inspection at 9 a.m. Carbine not satisfactory. Went on picket at 2 p.m. Lowensville post. Lieut. Woodward left camp for good. Goulding has rec. his furlough and leaves camp for Michigan.. Rec. letter from McCrillis.

April 11, Monday
Spent 35
To Lowensville post.
Weather fair and pleasant.
All quiet in camp. Have read "The Death Mystery", a crimson tale of life in New York by Mat Buntline. Adj. Kinnie is married today. Strange works in camp.
A new line of pickets is put on and the old line taken off. Relieved from picket at eight in the evening.

April 12, Tuesday
For curb hook 25
Weather fine and pleasant
Dress parade and drill at 9 a.m. Co. A drilled the skirmish drill. Private Ross was thrown from his horse but not hurt. His horse leaped the abatis and brought up in K stable. Went on camp guard in Morrison's place. Rec. letters from Sweat and Mary. Answered the same.

April 13, Wednesday
For butter and paper 51
A bright and clear day.
All quiet in camp. Dress parade and drill as usual. Relieved from guard at 1 p.m.

April 14, Thursday
Drew a haversack.
Very pleasant today.
Dress parade at 9 a.m. No drill for Co.'s A, L and H but an order to pack two days rations and forage and be ready to leave camp at noon. This means something.
Noon - all is ready - 50 men from the 2nd under com'd of Capt. Rumery and about the same from the 16th under com'd of Capt. Slayfer made up the scout. The whole is under the command of Maj. Forbes.
We left camp at 1 p.m. by way of Hunter Mill. Midnight found us in rear of A lines still moving on through the woods.

April 15, Friday
One o'clock this morning we came on the Pike near Middleburgh. After skirting the Pike we came on down through Aldie to Mount Zion's Church. Arrived here about 3 a.m. After feeding our horses and cooking breakfast we resumed our march, taking the back road from Aldie to Centerville. Here things became exciting and the boys had their fun, if charging over fences through fields and brush can be called fun.
Six Johnnies were made to ask quarters of the blue bellied Yankees.
We arrived at camp 1 p.m. Horses and men nearly fagged out.
Rec. letter from Frank.

April 16, Saturday
Spent 15
Stormy today. All quiet in Camp.
The six rebel prisoners left for Alexandria. Went on picket at 2 p.m., reserve near Waters Mill - a very pleasant place in dry weather. Lieut. Armstrong is Officer of the guard. My horse is lame caused by a fall while leaping the fence.

April 17, Sunday
Spent 1.50
Quite pleasant today.
Took dinner at Mrs. Muncy's, the first meat I have eaten since I left Readville some 14 months ago.
Relieved from picket at 3 p.m. Bad accident on the Railroad. Engine Pickwick ran off the track and buried itself in the mud close to the Abatis. No one was hurt. Evening they went to work on her and soon had her on the track ready for service.

April 18, Monday
Fair and pleasant.
At six o'clock we were routed from slumber an ordered to prepare for a day's scout. All available men in the 2nd Mass and 15 and 16 NY left camp at 8 a.m. by way of Hunter Mill. Fryingpan, etc. Halted near Goose Crick and cooked coffee.
After this we started enroute for Leesburg without any resistance. We arrived in the City about dark. Remained in and around the town through the night.

April 19, Tuesday
This morning found everything quiet. About 8 a.m. Cos. A and L started on a scout to the rear of town. We captured 8 prisoners and joined the column about 9 miles from the creek. We returned to Balls Mill unscathed and cooked coffee. About three p.m. we started for Aldie. Found all quiet and returned to the Mill for the night.
Cos C and L went to Leesburg.
Co H had 9 men wounded and 1 killed.

April 20, Wednesday
The 4th Del. boys at the crick. A little after sunrise the column started for Leesburg after our wounded. They being cared for we started for Camp which we reached about sundown. Found all quiet.
Rec. letters from Gould and Sue.

April 21, Thursday
Spent for Sundries 80
(Contributed for Lee's Exp.) 1.90
Rec. from Government 26.00
How dark and cloudy is life when forsaken by those who should have been true. I am writing to Sue. My heart is ready to burst and my eyes are dimmed with tears. How, how could she be so cruel as to write me thus. She did not know my heart if she thought me false. If she knew how near she lays to my heart. If she knew how sacred her name has been to me she would not have written me thus. May God forgive her as freely as I do.

April 22, Friday
Weather fine and pleasant.
All quiet in camp. Forenoon cleaned my arms and prepared for inspection.
2 p.m. went on picket at Waters Mill. Stood post on the flat near the ford. False alarm about 11 p.m. Starting at the extreme ends of the line. Capt. Smith returned to camp.

April 23, Saturday
Spent 10
At 4:30 a.m. the 16th reserve was attacked. 20 horses and 4 prisoners taken and 1 man wounded. At reveille Cos. A and S with Col. Lowell and Maj. Forbes started in pursuit. They followed as far as Middleburg, had several skirmishes with them and captured Lieut. Hunter. Corp Bumgardner Co. A is wounded in the arm. It has been a hard chase. Several horses were left dead by the road.

April 24, Sunday
Spent 25
Weather lovely
Inspection of arms and quarters at 10 a.m. Nothing of interest in camp. Cleaned my horse equipment for monthly inspection. Drew 2 pair of socks 32 each. Wrote to Ellen.
 

April 25, Monday
Spent for Supplies 50
Weather fine and pleasant.
Monthly inspection at 11 a.m. Went on picket at 2 p.m.

April 26, Tuesday
Spent 25
On picket Post 1. all quiet on the lines. Nothing of interest in camp.

April 27, Wednesday
Weather fine and pleasant.
Dismounted Dress parade at the usual hour after which we had a carbine drill. Benjamin is made Reg't Commissary Serg't. Goulding returned from furlough sick. Rec. letter from Em. Wrote to Father. Sent him fifteen dollars. $15.00.

April 28, Thursday
Weather fine and pleasant.
Reveille at half past four. Scout left camp at 7 a.m. by way of Hunter's Mill. Passing up the back way we arrived at Leesburg a little past noon. Killed one man here and took 11 prisoners. We searched several houses, etc. after which we fed our horses, burned the grainery, then proceeded on to Hamilton. Remained here till daylight next morning.

April 29, Friday
Spent 20
Broke camp at Hamilton about 5 a.m. and started for Upperville, Maj. Forbes taking part of the command by way of Snickersville. The rest passed through Union We stopped here to feed. Arrived at Upperville a little past noon after several skirmishes in which none was injured. We passed round to the south of Union and returned to Casey's Mills. Here we met Col. McMan's Reg't (16 NY). Camped overnight. Maj Forbes com'd captured 6 prisoners. Capt. Demerit wounded himself in the leg. One NY killed and one of Co. F is a prisoner.

April 30, Saturday
7 o'clock a.m. finds our com'd (with the exception of a guard for the prisoners) moving up the Pike at Upperville. Maj. Forbes with 1 Company of Doboys and 2 Comp. of Cav. (L and K) left this place to the right. The rest proceeded on to Paris at the foot of Ashby's Gap. The infantry keep with us til within 1 miles of the place. We found all quiet here with the exception of a few shots from bush which is at long range. One NY was killed and 1 taken prisoner.
Returning to Upperville the Infantry returned to the camping ground while the Cav. passed round by Green Garden Mills. Here the boys had a skirmish. Serg't Clark was killed, Boggs Merrill wounded. 2 of the rebs were killed, one wounded and 2 taken prisoners at Casey's Mills at dark.

May 1, Sunday
Spent 15
Six o'clock a.m. All ready to leave for Camp (at Vienna). It is a pleasant day and everything is quiet. In Middleburg several contrabands had their things packed and wished to accompany us to camp but owning to inconveniences we were obliged to leave them a while longer to the Mercies of their Masters. Middleburg is a pleasant place but like all other Southern Villages it has but few improvements. Found all quiet in Aldie. Arrived at Vienna at 6 p.m. with prisoners and a variety of Contraband goods - amt not known.
60 recruits have been added to the reg't. Rec. letters from McCrillis and Mary.

May 2, Monday
Weather fine and pleasant.
Serg't Clark is buried with military honors. Funeral at 11 a.m.
This morning three of the Flint Hill pickets were gabled. Their horses and arms were taken. They escaped.
At 11 a.m. a scout left camp in pursuit of the intruders. We followed their trail some five miles, then gave it up as a bad job and started for camp. Arrived there 4 p.m. tired and hungry.
Evening a heavy thunderstorm passed over. It rained powerful.

May 3, Tuesday
Spent for paper, envelopes, plates, etc. 1.40
Weather fine and pleasant.
All quiet in camp. Gen Tyler has been over from Fairfax. His business is not known yet. Afternoon was out after brooms. Wrote to Em. Sent her fifty cents in Confederate script.

May 4, Wednesday
Spent 25
Weather fine and pleasant.
Dism't Dress parade and drill at 9 a.m. Drill was principally marching by Camp. Afternoon, orderly for Officer of the Day. Cos. F and H had a sham fight. Two horses were wounded. All quiet on the lines. Wrote to Mary. Sent her my Diary of '63.

May 5, Thursday
For shoeing horse, postage on Diary, etc. 1.65
Weather fine and lovely.
All quiet in Camp. A scout left Camp about 11 a.m. both mounted and dismounted under command of Capt. McAmtry. Dress parade drill at the usual hour. Afternoon, drilled the skirmish drill. Had my horse shod. Wrote to McCrillis. Twelve recruits assigned to Co. A. Meade commenced operations at the front. Lee repulsed.

May 6, Friday
Spent 55
Weather hot and sultry.
Dismounted Dress parade and Drill at the usual hour. 2 p.m. the Gen's call sounded and the tents fell...to give them air. Co. A is on picket at Flint Hill.

May 7, Saturday
Spent 60
Sultry. The 16th left camp with six days' rations. Their destination is not known. Dismount and Dress parade, etc. at the usual hour.
Woodmand and Thompson promoted to Lieut. The members of the Ban... ordered to their Camp.
Afternoon went to Fairfax Court House with a prisoner (19 NY). Passed Mrs. Moler beyond the pickets. The tents fell at 2 p.m.

May 8, Sunday
Spent 25
Weather muggy.
Comp. inspection at 9 a.m. by Major....Relieved from 24 hours of duty for best appearance at guard inspection. 3 p.m. left camp on Scout. Davis as guide, Lieut. Stone in com'd. Took Manassas road, passed three miles beyond the junction, and camped for the night. Everything is quiet. No news from the front.

May 9, Monday
6 a.m. we started up the railroad toward the Rappahannock Station. After a dusty march of 21 miles we reached the station a little past noon.
All quiet along the front. It is a splendid country but war has done its work. Scarce a dwelling remains to note the industry of man. Nothing remains but deserted camps. Where thousands of souls resided but a few days ago, not a sound mars the stillness. Camped overnight at the 50 NY V Engine.

May 10, Tuesday
Headquarters 50 NY (V Engine)
This camp is on an eminence 1 miles from the Rappahannock. It shows the workmanship of man although vacated. Breakfast over we returned to the Station. Drew one day's ration and after resting some three hours we returned to Catlett Station near Cutler Run. Remained here til Col. Lowell returned from the Rappahannock. Lieut Perfanty lost three men - taken prisoners.
Took a bath in the crick. No news at all.

May 11, Wednesday
Spent 25
Catlett Station. The main column returned to this place 6 a.m. Col. Lowell returned to camp soon after. 2 p.m. our Squadron left for the Station. Arrived there at dark. Drew one day's rations and returned to the 50th NY E old camp. Remained here overnight. Weather sultry with heavy showers.

May 12, Thursday
Returned to Cutler Creek early this morning. Showers through the day. Heavy cannonading at the front. Remained at the Creek all day. Afternoon, two trains of cars ran out as far as the Rappahannock to bring in the Pontoon Bridge and the 4th Del.
Hancock took over three thousand prisoners and 40 pieces of artillery.

May 13, Friday
Stormy through the night.
The trains have returned and we leave for camp at 8 a.m. Joined a portion of the 16th at Bristow Station. Swam the Bull Run Creek. One of the 16th was drowned.
Arrived at Vienna at Sundown. Found all quiet. Private Williams Co. A is in camp. Rec. letters from John, Mary, Ellen and the old folks. Rec. the remainder of the camp fund $22.00.

May 14, Saturday
Spent 10
Very pleasant today.
Prepared my arms for inspection. Gen. Tyler has left with the troops for Fairfax C. H. and Col. Lowell takes com'd. Rec. letter from Em. Answered same. Showers throughout the night.

May 15, Sunday
On picket duty at Fairfax. Left Vienna 1 a.m. (Midnight relief strategy). Showery all day. 16th NY moved to Fairfax. Good news from the front. Our army is successful at every point.

May 16, Monday
For cup 35
Weather fine. All quiet and no particular news from the front.
2nd Reg't. is moving their Stables. At retreat Gen. Orders No. 28 was read. It pertaineth to racing the horses, etc.

May 17, Tuesday
Spent 10
Very Warm.
To work in the stable. No news of importance. All quiet in camp.

May 18, Wednesday
Spent 20
Ten a.m. a Scout with three day's rations left camp commanded by Maj. Forbes, Spalding and a deserter acting as a guide. Traveled all night. Found all quiet thus far.

May 19, Thursday
Four a.m. Column halts in Rectortown. Capt. Rumery with a party of dis'mt searched Mosby headquarters, etc. Caught three prisoners - one was wounded.
At six we were in the Saddle and on our way to R.M. Searched the houses in this place but found nothing. Our work done here we continue on toward Upperville. Took six prisoners before we reached the town. Here the column fed.
Two p.m. we were in Middleburg - Seven, we were in Rolls Mill. Halted there for the night.

May 20, Friday
Spent 20
Half past three a.m. finds us in motion. At six our horses are fed, coffee cooked and we are on our way to camp which we reached at noon. This has been a hard trip - both for men and horses.
Out of 51 hours, we were in the saddle 40. Captured some 25 horses and eleven prisoners.

May 21, Saturday
For cap, etc. 55
Hot and sultry.
No news in camp. Afternoon built stalls for the captured horses. Rec. letter from Sue.

May 22, Sunday
Spent 25
Weather continues sultry. No sign of showers.
Company inspection at half past eight. Drew our Shelter Tents and prepared for General Review which comes off tomorrow.
Wrote to Sue. It cost me a struggle, but it was by her request and I could do no less for I love her still, and to secure her happiness is my only object.
May her life be long and her joys many. May her path be strewn with flowers and her pillow soft as the downy fleece.
Oh, Sue, thy love was as sweet as honey, and thy displeasureas cruel as the grave. It is hard to be misunderstood by one you love.

May 23, Monday
Spent 25
Reviewed by Lieut. Col. Crowningshield at 7 a.m.
Privates Pelham and Copeland ordered to report to their camp this day for duty.
Changed Sharps Carbine for Spencer seven shooter.
Rail Road Bridge near Falls Church 1 p.m. Towle, Porter and Dearborn to guard this Bridge for the next 24 hours.
 

May 24, Tuesday
Spent 65
Three a.m. Two trains of Cars passed up. Object, to move camp to Falls Church. All quiet on the road. No relief today and the grub is all out. Evening, a Tremendous Thunder Storm passed over.

May 25, Wednesday
For a lunch etc. 55
Weather fine and pleasant.
Still on guard at the bridge. News from the front favorable. Grant is still on the advance and successful at every point. Butler has had some sharp fighting and still holds his ground. Evening Showery.

May 26, Thursday
Stormy today
Relieved from guard Ten a.m. and returned to Camp. All in commotion here. Tents are being pitched, picket lines stretched. Abatis planted and headquarters erected. No peace for the present. Every one that can wiggle a leg is called upon to act his part in the great drama. Rec. letter from McCrillis - answered the same.

May 27, Friday
Rec. for building bunk 25
Lent McNeil 45
Spent 5
Weather fine and lovely.
Plenty of work in camp. Forenoon worked for Capt. Smith. Afternoon built bunk for Lieut. ..... and nearly completed my own tent.

May 28, Saturday
Spent for hatchet etc. $1.10
To work on Crowningshield's house. Nothing of interest in camp. Boys are throwing up the Stable. French de Long killed near Herndon Sta. by one of our Scouts.

May 29, Sunday
General inspection of arms and equipment (monthly). At half past eight horses all packed and in marching order by Capt. .... of the 16th NY.
Detailed on the parade ground to go on a three day Scout under Lieut. Coulds. Relieved the old Scout at Vienna. Passed through Drainsville. Cooked coffee at Guilford Station and camped for the night at Fitzhu's farm. Old Scout brought in one prisoner.

May 30, Monday
Spent 10
Lent Plummer 25
Six o'clock, breakfast cooked and we are on the road to Herndon Station. Laving this station we padded through Fryingpan on to Centerville. Reached this place about noon. Met a Scout from the 16th NY. Leaving here we proceeded directly to Stuart's farm. Rested here some four hours and cooked supper. From here we went to Foxes Mills.
Camped for the night at Foxes Roads.

May 31, Tuesday
Spent 65
Left Foxes Roads at Sunrise for Fryingpan. Cooked breakfast here. Breakfast over we started for Green (or L.....?) Springs Captured one prisoner. From here we went to Blue Springs. Cooked coffee and rested for a while.
Arrived at Centerville four p.m. Camped for the night just above Stone Mills on the Centerville and Chantilla Road.
June 1, Wednesday

Spent 25
6 o'clock started for Chantilla. Rested here til the relief came (noon). One p.m. found us on our way to Camp which was reached after a warm march of four hours. Found all quiet and the boys busy as ever.

June 2, Thursday
For paper 5
Weather dark and cloudy.
Some little rain fell during the day. Two Scouts left camp, one about 9 a.m. mounted and dismounted and one at 2 p.m. The latter commanded by Maj. Forbes. On the advance. Took supper at Fryingpan and camped a short distance from Fryingpan on the Green Spring road. On picket.

June 3, Friday
Spent 15
Sunrise - coffee is cooked and we are moving up toward Green Spring. Everything is quiet. Five miles beyond G.S. we rested until 4 p.m. The rest is preparatory to a night's march to join Capt. Stone's command near the Snickerville Pike. The doboys being sorefooted we were obliged to slacken our speed.

June 4, Saturday
3 o'clock we were at Hatche's Mills. Searched the old man's house and took him prisoner. Returned to Middleburg and searched several houses. A few citizens were taken. Halted and cooked coffee some two miles below the town on the pike.
Eight o'clock we charged through Aldie. Stopped at Chantilla and cooked coffee (those who chose to). Reached camp by way of Vienna about dark.
Rec'd letter from Davis written at Hilton Head, S.C.

June 5, Sunday
Spent 40
Lent Lieut. Woodman $10.00
Weather fine and pleasant
All quiet in camp. Afternoon built bunk for Sgts. Meade and Burlingham. Dress parade at half past six p.m. After services the companies were marched and countermarched through the Regimental St. for punishment.
Burlingham is promoted to 2nd Lieut. Wrote to Davis.

June 6, Monday
Spent 40
Lent Hamlin 20
Morning Hot.
We have orders to move and reconstruct our tents. Breakfast over and at it we go. Here comes a detail for me and I must go to take charge of the waterworks (trough).
Forenoon filed two saws. Afternoon commenced the job - laid the foundation. Evening, a smart shower passed over.

June 7, Tuesday
Spent 10
Weather fine and pleasant.
Still at work on trough. Completed the bottom and part of the sides. Nothing of interest in Camp. News favorable from the front.

June 8, Wednesday
For maps of the S. St. 95
Lent Gamblin 25
Weather fine etc.
Forenoon built spouts and tightened dam. Afternoon left camp with three days rations. Several teams accompanied the com'd. Passed through Annandale, Springfield Station, etc. Camped at the Alexandria and Fredericksburg pike. This part of the country is thickly wooded. Only now and then a dwelling house makes an appearance.

June 9, Thursday
Fifty ambulances joined the com'd early this morning from Alexandria. After feeding their horses the whole com'd moved down the Alexandria and Fredricksburg road. After moving at all points of the compass we crossed the Occoquan at Wolf Run Sholes. Unsaddled for a short time on the S. side of the Creek.
McClellan held a strong position near the Front. Showers at about Sundown. Stood picket. Co. A relieved Co. G from the advance. Camped at Independent Hill.

June 10, Friday
Resumed our march early this morning. Co. A is in advance. Reached Acquia Cr. about noon. Rested here till about 4 p.m. Reached United States Ford at dark. Camped near here for the night. Heavy showers at 5 p.m.

June 11, Saturday
Crossed the Ford at Sunrise. Co. A in advance. Passed through Chancellorsville and on to the Wilderness. Here is a sight one scarce beholds. The roadside is strewn with decayed bodies. If any doubt the bravery of our boys let them visit this place.
Reached the hospital at Locust Grove about 2 p.m. The boys are cheerful and glad to see us. Four o'clock the wounded are all aboard (except 3 for which we lack room) and we are moving down the road to Fort B.
I helped carry the wounded as far as Chancellorsville. It was a hard case but it would have been harder to have left them behind. They preferred to go, even if they could not survive the trip, to staying behind.

June 12, Sunday
Reached the United States Ford one o'clock this morning. Remained here till daylight. Cooked our breakfast and started about Sunrise. One of the Ambulances upset near the Ford. The wounded are cheerful and in good spirits with the exception one or two of the worst cases.
Yankee Davis' (Old guide) horse took a French leave. Ten men from Co. A followed him some six miles but to no effect.
Camped some six miles from Acquia Cr. Had fresh beef for supper. Heavy firing in the direction of Orange C.H.

June 13, Monday
Spent 25
Half past three a.m. breakfast call sounded. One of the wounded died last night. His remains lie buried near the road.
Crossed Cutter run and Broad run and came out at Manassas Junction. Cooked coffee between Centerville and Ball run. Reached Fairfax Court House at dark. Here the Com'd separated. The Ambulances kept on the pike to Alexandria while the 2nd Co. took the road to Falls Church. Reached Camp 11 p.m.
Rumor in Camp that Mosby is at hand with 600 men. Kept our horses saddled all night. Rec. letter from Sue.

June 14, Tuesday
Spent 40
All quiet in camp. Reports seem to be varied. I doubt if Mosby is within 100 miles of this place. Noon, Co. A discharged their arms.
Wrote to Sue.
Night on picket.

June 15, Wednesday
Spent 50
Weather fine and pleasant.
On picket near the River. Nothing of interest in camp. I think there is a sad mistake in Co. A for Sergt. Hussey is made 1st Sergt., Corp. Sherwin is Sergt. and Privates Ackerman, Dearborn and Straw are made Corporal.
Drew 1 pair of boots $3.35
Rec. letter from Mary.

June 16, Thursday
Spent for stamps 65
Weather warm and pleasant.
All quiet in camp. Renewed our work on trough.

June 17, Friday
Spent 35
Hot and sultry.
Completed our Dam and set the water to running. All works well. Nothing of interest in Camp. Forbes got into a row at the Dam.

June 18, Saturday
Spent 25
Rec. of Government $26.00
Weather fine and pleasant.
Nothing of interest in camp except the paymaster. He came to camp today, a very welcome visitor.
Built hay carts for Forbes. 90 Dis'mt men left camp with three days rations.

June 19, Sunday
Spent 90
All quiet in camp.
A Scout left camp with three days rations at 6 a.m.
Forenoon cleaned my arms, etc. Wrote to Frank and Mary.

June 20, Monday
Spent 10
Fine and pleasant.
Completed the water works. The old Scout returned about 9 p.m. All quiet in camp. Received letter from McCrillis containing his photograph.

June 21, Tuesday
Spent 25
Weather fine and lovely.
Laying off today All quiet in camp. On stable guard. Rec. letter from Em containing letter she wishes me to mail, address
Miss Annie R. Ely
Fern Terr.
South Hadley, Mass.

June 22, Wednesday
For carbine socket, etc. $1.15
Loaned Serg't Sherwin 50
Wrote to Em. Mailed her letter, etc. Monthly inspection at 8 a.m. (Mtd.) Co. C has taken up their quarters some three miles out of camp on the Fairfax road. The scouts returned to camp this afternoon. They met with nothing on the trip. Afternoon worked in the Officers mess room.

June 23, Thursday
Spent 60
All quiet in camp. No news of importance from the front. Mounted camp guard at 9 p.m. Wrote to McCrillis.
Drew 2 pr of socks. 64

June 24, Friday
Spent for watch, etc. $25.20
On camp guard - retired 9 p.m. Weather uncomfortably hot. Report came in that the 16th NY's are captured. A Scout leaves camp 9 this evening.

June 25, Saturday
Spent 60
Rec. of Sherwin 50
Hot and sultry.
All quiet with us. Reveille at 9 a.m. after which we rec. orders to prepare for a two day Scout. The Old Scout returned at 10 a.m. They learned that Mosby had been in the vicinity of Centerville with 200 men and a piece of artillery.
Wrote to Ellen.

June 26, Sunday
Spent 20
Loaned Goulding $1.00
Hot and sultry.
Nothing of interest moving in camp. Goulding is out on a pass. Mounted camp picket at quarter to four p.m. Co. inspection 9 a.m. Non dress parade 6:45 p.m. My promotion was read. It is dated back to June 2nd.
Wrote to Em.

June 27, Monday
Weather fine and pleasant.
On guard at H.Q. Nothing of interest in camp.

June 28, Tuesday
Spent 40
Weather fine etc.
Rec. a pass with Private G. W. Towle to go to Somersville and return. We had a pleasant trip and all the cherries we could eat. Took dinner at Mother Gorham's etc.
At retreat rec. orders to wear our Pistols till further orders. A Scout left camp early this morning. Rec. letter from Em requesting a photograph of some .........

June 29, Wednesday
Spent 13
Weather fine and pleasant
Have been reading Ida May by Mary Langdon. Rec. letter from McCrillis.

June 30, Thursday
Spent 35
On stable guard. Weather pleasant. Boots and saddle call sounded at reveille. We were ordered to pack two days rations and forage.
Lead out sounded at 10 a.m. We remained in line till the Old Scout returned. Around 1 p.m. we unsaddled.
Evening mustered for pay by Lt. Col. Crowningshield. A big scout left at 9 p.m.

July 1, Friday
Spent 15
Fine showers this morning. The dust is laid and everything looks lovely.
Evening hot and sultry. Have written to McCrillis and Albert. Scout returned this forenoon. (Goulding is unwell.)

July 2, Saturday
Spent for shirts, photograph, etc. $5.20
Rec. of Goulding $1.00
Nothing of interest today. The camp is quiet and the boys that are not in the ditch are taking it easy.
Private Anderson is placed in Guard House for unbecoming language to his superiors.

July 3, Sunday
Spent for shoe brush 25
Fine and pleasant.
All quiet in camp. Dress parade at 7 p.m.

July 4, Monday
Spent 20
No excitement today. It is the most quiet Fourth I ever witnessed. No one is allowed to leave camp to go beyond the pickets.
With the exception of a little horse jumping there has been no amusement at all. Rec. letter from Davis.

July 5, Tuesday
Spent 20
Weather fine.
Report in camp that we are to leave soon. Afternoon worked on the abatis.
Wrote to Davis.

July 6, Wednesday
Spent 15
Weather fine and pleasant.
All quiet in camp.
Fight between a portion of the 2nd Mass. com'd by Maj. Forbes and Mosby's men. They were cleaned out, clean as a whistle. It occurred near Mt. Zion Church.
Out of Co. A. Sergts Hilliard, Plummer and Corp. Bumgardner were wounded. Corp. Hanscom killed. Privates Loane, Artmore, Perkins and ..... missing. McFarley and Scott Emery are prisoners.

July 7, Thursday
Boots and saddle sounded at half past two a.m. At four we left for the battle ground. Reached the Church at noon. Found things in a bad predicament. Some 15 dead, 25 wounded. A number supposed to be prisoners. Chaplain Humphry being one of them.
We returned by way of Centerville.
We have marched over 60 miles today without food or forage.

July 8, Friday
Spent 10
Reached camp half past one this morning.
Out of the 100 men that went out from the reg't 25 are unaccounted for. Capt. Loane is severely wounded. He came in yesterday. Also Lieut. Caulies with several others.

July 9, Saturday
All quiet in camp.
A Scout left camp at retreat with three days rations.
Rec. letter from Mother.

July 10, Sunday
Warm with a fresh breeze.
Wrote to Mother and Sue.
One o'clock p.m. the bugle sounded to horse. We leave camp today with orders to report to Washington. Left Camp half past four. Reached Fort Reno half past ten in evening. Camped here.

July 11, Monday
9 a.m. finds us in the Saddle and we moved to the front on the Georgetown and Rockville Pike. Encountered the enemy in force 8 miles from the Fortifications. Our forces being small we fell back to the Old Stone Tavern. Checked the enemy here and held him for the day notwithstanding they used their Artillery and sharpshooters. It was rather warm but the boys soon got used to their fire and took things cool.
Co. A. left the front at 6 p.m. and retired within the fort.
Heavy skirmishing on the 7th St. pike.

July 12, Tuesday
Six o'clock we marched up the Old Dirt Road to the left of the pike, some four miles.
Comps A and L engaged the enemy on his right flank. After two hours hard skirmishing we succeeded in silencing their battery and drove them from their position. Casualties on either side not known.
Evening a portion of the Corps engaged the enemy on 7th St. and drove them from their position. 10 o'clock p.m. they retired from before the Fortification.

July 13, Wednesday
7 o'clock a.m.
Again we are on our way up the pike. We came up with the enemy one mile beyond Rockwell. Three squadrons of us engaged their rear guard from two to three hours and after a hard struggle we were overpowered and compelled to retire in some disorder.
59 of our Reg't were taken prisoners, 10 from Co. A are missing. Goulding is one of the number.

July 14, Thursday
Rockville 6 a.m.
Left this place and moved up the Rockville pike. 2 p.m. engaged the enemy's rear guard at Poolsville. After a short skirmish of 1 hour and a half we drove them from the town.
4 p.m., the 6th Army Corps came up and the boys feel as though they had a back....
9 p.m. reached White's Ford.
The evening is safely over. 11 p.m. returned to the town and camped for the night.

July 15, Friday
Spent 50
Poolsville 10 a.m.
The bugle sounded to horse and we moved out of town. 11 a.m. the columns started for Kelley's Ford. Co. A crossed in advance and met with no resistance. Reaching the elevated ground we ascertained a large R column to be near White's Ford.
At dusk they gave us a salute of 8 guns. One horse was killed and ten men wounded.
At 10 p.m. we retired to the Island and bivouacked for the night.

July 16, Saturday
6 a.m. recrossed Kelley's Ford and moved up the RR to White's Ford, crossing this Ford in advance of the 6th Corps. Co. A crossed in line of skirmishers. After crossing we moved toward Leesburg.
Near the Beacon we were shelled by the rebs. No one was hurt.
2 p.m. we reached the town. After searching the principal houses we left town to the right and moved toward the Gap.
Camped on the elevation back of Lee's line. (Lost Knife).

July 17, Sunday
All quiet today. Made no advance until evening.
The Cav. advanced some six miles in the direction of Upperville.
Hunter's forces are reported to be close at hand. Also the 19th Corps.

July 18, Monday
Nothing of interest today.
Our forces are moving through the Gap and we are on the left flank. Have advanced but little today. Camped within two miles of Snickersville.

July 19, Tuesday
Nothing of interest today.
The army is still on the advance and all is quiet.
Ten a.m. to horse was sounded and the Reg't moved through the Gap (Snickersville) reaching the flat beyond the Gap. We countermarched by the right flank and returned to the camp we left two miles from the town.

July 20, Wednesday
Nothing of interest. All quiet with us. Left camp near Snickersville about noon. Three squadrons of us moved to the left of the pike to ascertain the report that 12 of our men were captured by S.....
10 of the 8th Ill. were captured and one wounded. Returning, we passed through the Gap, crossed the Shenandoah and moved up the pike as far as Berryville.
Leaving this town we proceeded in the direction of Ashby's Gap some 4 miles. Evening all our forces returned through the Gap. Returned to our old position near the village.

July 21, Thursday
Two o'clock this morning we drew up in line near Snickersville. Remained here til morning. Six a.m. moved down the pike to cover the right flank of the Sixth Corps which is on its way to Washington. Reached C.... ford (on Goose Creek) 9 p.m. Camped for the night.

July 22, Friday
Left Goose Creek 7 a.m. keeping on the right flank we reached Drainsville two p.m. Halted near this place some two hours.
8 p.m. the com'd halted for the night near Mrs. Johnson.

July 23, Saturday
Left Johnson's farm at 7 a.m.
Halted at Freedom Hill one hour. Reached Lowerville 12 noon. Remained here till 3 p.m. when the bugle sounded to horse and we moved to Falls Church. Arrived at our old camp 8 p.m. (Night on Stable guard).
Received letters from McCrillis, Nell and Sue. In the latter the term traitor was given me.

July 24, Sunday
Spent for plate 50
Rec. from G. W. Towle $2.00
All quiet today.
Nothing of importance to do and yet I am miserable. The thought of being called a traitor by the truest friend I have is hard to bear. There must be some unfriendly hand at work, desiring to separate us and if possible sink us in utter misery and I fear their success is sure. May the power of the Almighty arrest them in their evil designs and bring them to justice.

July 25, Monday
Stormy in forenoon.
False alarm last night. The whole regiment saddled up and remained so til morning. Afternoon worked on Capt's tent.
10:15 p.m. Officer's call sounded. We have orders to pack saddles and be ready to leave at any moment.

July 26, Tuesday
2:30 a.m. the bugle sounded to horse. 4:15 we had orders to the old camp and moved toward Chain Bridge. Crossed the bridge at 6:30. Joined the infantry some two miles below and rested for a while.
At 9 we joined Col. Lowell at Fort Rinoe and moved up the Rockville pike. I took dinner near the Stone Tavern. Reached Rockville 4 p.m. 4:30 halted on the Skirmish ground.
6th Corps passed us 6 p.m. after which we moved up the pike some six miles and bivouacked.

July 27, Wednesday
Spent for coffee 35
5 o'clock a.m. finds us in the saddle and on our way to Bonville. Reached this place 9 a.m. Leaving here (Co. A far in advance) we took the road to Hyatts Town. Reached there 11:30. Found a portion of the 10th Corps here. Passed through the town some half a mile. Halted to wait for further orders. Evening, 6th Corps camped near the town and they joined Co. C at the lower Bon Manocovey.

July 28, Thursday
6 a.m. joined the Reg't at Manocovy junction.. Afternoon pointed nails for the Blacksmith. 3 p.m. the Com'd left for Petersville. The train left at 9 p.m. to come up with the train of the 6th Corps at Frederick. Left this place at 12:30 a.m.

July 29, Friday
Spent for bread 25
Reached Jefferson 3:30 a.m. Remained here till 4:30. Leaving the boys here I started to join the Reg't at Potsville. Passed through Centerville 5 a.m. Reached Col 6 which was just moving out towards Harpers Ferry. Reached the Ferry 10 a.m. Crossed the river on pontoon.
12 m. we halted two miles from town.
6 p.m. camped near Hall Town.
A rugged road we have travelled today. The Ferry is one of the most picturesque places I ever witnessed.

July 30, Saturday
Petersburg blown up and Chambersburg burned. 9 a.m. the Cav. made a reconnaissance in the direction of Hall Town. Quite a force of the enemy were at the town but as our forces entered the town they passed out. No casualties on either side.
4 p.m. returned to Camp to find everything packed and ready to move. Recrossed the Ferry 9 p.m. and moved towards S.M.P.
After one of the most dreary marches I ever witnessed (in which nearly all were clothed in slumber a portion of the way) we reached the mountain gap.

July 31, Sunday
Middleburg near the Pass -
5 o'clock this morning camped on the height. South Mt. Pass - 7 o'clock p.m. all quiet in this vicinity. The day has been hot and sultry, so much so we retired from the open space to the grove.
It seems the report that Lee with a large force had crossed into Md. is without foundation. Our pickets extend out as far as Antietam and there is no sign of the enemy having been that vicinity.
Evening, returned to the field.

August 1, Monday
Spent for bread etc. 55
The day is warm and quiet.
Remained in the pass til 4 p.m. when receiving orders the Com'd moved down the pike to Frederick.
Passed through Middletown 6 p.m. Greeted on every hand with the best wishes of the inhabitants. It is a lovely place and may peace and prosperity be with it. Reached our train near Frederick 8:30 p.m. Remained here through the night.
(Martin Grant Matthews and myself took a trip to Boonesboro).

August 2, Tuesday
Near Manocovy Mills (D)
Left camp near Frederick 9 a.m. coming by way of Lime Kiln Switch and Buxtown. We reached this point 12 M. Horses picketed and fed, all hands made for the River to bathe. Several of us chose the sloose and after a nice swim we washed our clothes and returned to camp.
Our train arrived this afternoon with ten days rations for 1400 men.
Camped near the river.

August 3, Wednesday
9 a.m. the Sixth Corps came up and we recrossed the river and camped in the woods. Remained here for the day. Nothing of interest.
Gen. Hunter exchanged flags with Wright. Hunter takes command of the whole force and Wright is returned to the 6th Corps.

August 4, Thursday
Spent for bread 20
Nothing of interest today. Martin and myself took a trip to Lime Kiln Station.
Four p.m. Boots and Saddle sounded and our Reg't moved to Point of rocks. Reached the ford 6:30 p.m.
Co A. left the Reg't here and went to Berlin to do patrol duty.
Sent patrol to the Ferry and Point of Rocks.

August 5, Friday
Left Berline for the Ferry 6:20. Returned at noon. Nothing of importance today.
Our forces are concentrating at Harpers Ferry. The Rebs are reported at Hall Town. Left Berlin for Point of Rocks at 4 p.m. Evening drew four days rations.

August 6, Saturday
Left Point of Rocks 12 last night. Took the toe path for the Ferry.
(Error)
Editor's note: The midnight departure apparently made for some confusion on recording of actual days, as Valorus seems to have realized his mistake and labeled this entry as being an (Error).

August 7, Sunday
Left Point of Rocks 12 last night for Harpers Ferry. Went up the toe path. Reached the Ferry 6 a.m.
Rec. orders here to go to Boonesboro. Passed through Petersville and reached the above place at noon. Finding all quiet we returned to the Ferry just as the sun went down. Moved down to Sandy Hook and halted for the night.
A hard days march. Over 50 miles we have made since twelve this morning.
Editor's Note: Does Valorus mean last night? It is not easy to determine when August 6 ends because of the long march.)

August 8, Monday
3:30 a.m. finds us in the saddle and on our way to the Ferry. Crossed the river and camped one mile beyond Halltown. Remained here for the day. Sheridan com'd moved up in the afternoon. The Rebs are at Shepardstown in force.

August 9, Tuesday
Drew one pair of Pants.
The Reg's drew clothing etc.
Nothing of interest today.
Evening the Reg't was reorganized - Co. A and M are together and in the third Battalion. We are now in the first Brigade, second Div. of the Cav. Corps.
Maj. Gen. Sheridan takes command of the forces in this vicinity.
Drew four days rations and 20 pounds of forage. Forbes shot by accident.

August 10, Wednesday
Reveille sounded at half past two a.m. At 5:00 the forces (Inft, Art, and Cav) moved up the Winchester pike.
Reached Charleston 7:30.
The 2nd Mass. left the main column here and moved on toward Winchester. Encountered the reb picket six miles from the town. Thinking them to be too strong we fell back a short distance and held them in check.
Took eight prisoners.
Serg't Fletcher is a prisoner. Also one of Co L.

August 11, Thursday
Moved out at sunrise on an empty stomach. The boys are not too pleased at this.
Co. A takes the advance and is in on the skirmish line. Captured one prisoner. Col. Lowell came up with the rest of the Brigade. He changed direction to our left.
Afternoon, joined the command and camped on the Ashby pike. (White Post). Our forces advanced and engaged the enemy near Newtown and were repulsed with a loss of 200 K W and M.
Water at Kamdan Springs. (Mineral Water.)

August 12, Friday
5 o'clock finds us in the saddle and on our way to Newtown. Taking the advance we reached this place 8 a.m. Leaving here we took the pike to ....burg. Encountered the enemy's rear guard at Cedar Creek. Had a smart skirmish with them in the afternoon. Cos A and C had the right of the line. Relieved by the Doboys at sundown. Camped on the right flank.

August 13, Saturday
The infantry has advanced across the creek. Our Brigade remained near the old ruins. All quiet on the lines.
This morning Mosby came upon our trains near Berryville and captured 50 wagons etc. Owen, Spate and Martin among the missing. Winship arrived with the mail.

August 14, Sunday
Old Ruins.
The day is hot and sultry and there is but little to interest one.
Afternoon made a raid for forage and captured a Beehive.
Skirmishing at the front.
Drew four days rations.

August 15, Monday
Old Ruins.
There is but little of interest today.
General inspection of arms and equipment at 3 p.m.
Cannonading at the front. Casualties not known.

August 16, Tuesday
All quiet today.
7 a.m. our Brigade broke camp and moved to Mamouth Springs.

August 17, Wednesday
Left Cedar Creek 9 a.m. and moved toward Winchester. Burned all hay along the Valley and drove away the stock.
Cooked dinner 2 miles from Winchester. 1 p.m. heavy skirmishing on the main pike. Our Brigade was brought into position to cover the retreat.
5 p.m. the firing continues heavy on our right and A Bat. is engaged. At sundown it rages heavy. Our Brigade left the field and moved toward Berryville.
Custer took 500 prisoners at Ashby's Gap.

August 18, Thursday
Stormy.
5 a.m. returned to the Creek and covered the retreat of the 6th AC. Held the position near the Creek til 5 p.m. when the Rebs opened on us with a Battery.
6 p.m. we fell back a short distance and remained through the night.
All quiet after dusk.

August 19, Friday
Dark weather and some rain.
We still hold our position near the three mile post. Our Squadron went on picket. Connected the two Brigades - Wilson's and Lowell's. Our rations are up and we have nothing to eat but apples. Some growling to pass the time. All quiet on the lines with the exception of a few scattering shots.
Evening Winship arrived with the mail.

August 20, Saturday
Still stormy.
9 a.m. relieved from picket and drew three days rations. Remained near the pike.
All quiet on the lines til 5 o'clock p.m.
The enemy made a charge on our lines and was repulsed. The firing lasted one hour. Our loss was 5 wounded.
Owen joined the Company.
Rec. letter from Mr. Goulding.

August 21, Sunday
Morning clear and warm.
All quiet til half past ten a.m.
The enemy advanced and the firing commenced. Co. A was dismounted and placed on the skirmish line. We held our position til 2 p.m. at which time we were compelled to fall back amid the howling of shells and hissing of bullets. At the redoubt near Berryville they charged us through the woods and were repulsed. It was terrific and we did our duty well.
Grant and Ward were wounded.
Co. A left the skirmish line at 9:30 p.m. Joined the column on the pike to Charlestown.

August 22, Monday
5 o'clock a.m. our forces reached Charlestown. The enemy came up to our rear at this place and heavy skirmishing was kept up the rest of the distance - our Batterys shelling them from favorable position. Reaching the infantry at Halltown in line of battle our Brigade moved to their left and remained for the day.
6 p.m. the enemy attacked this portion of our lines and was repulsed by the infantry, losing some 20 prisoners.
Stood Post all night.

August 23, Tuesday
Relieved from picket by Capt. Rumery 8 a.m. Joined the command and remained quiet til 9 p.m. Our Reg't and a portion of the 22nd Penn went out to reconnoiter. Found the enemy in force this side of Charlestown. Returned to Camp at dusk in the evening.
The mail has arrived. Rec letters from Albert and Goulding.
Wrote to Goulding and his brother.

August 24, Wednesday
Weather fine and pleasant.
Firing is continually kept up in the front line. Afternoon our forces made a dash on the enemy line and succeeded in capturing several prisoners. Several of our men were wounded. Evening heavy firing on the lines when the picket was relieved.
One man was mortally wounded.
25th NY Cav joined us.
Drew one blouse.

August 25, Thursday
Weather fine and pleasant.
Still the firing is kept up between the lines but nothing very serious has occurred. Heavy cannonading in the direction of Sharpsburg.
Afternoon we made a dash on the enemy lines. Captured four prisoners. Capt. Eigenbrodt was wounded if not killed and was left near their lines.

August 26, Friday
Weather fine and pleasant.
All quiet on the lines. Scarce a shot has been fired on the left. The boys have exchanged papers and done some trading with each other. 9 o'clock p.m. we made a demonstration on their line in force. The 2nd Division and a part of the 1st of the 19th Corp was our support. Two squadrons of us charged their lines and took 75 prisoners. Lt. Meader and Private Ackerman killed.
The Rebs estimate their loss in K, W, M to be 300. They say they never saw such cav. fighting before.
Rec letter from Mary.

August 27, Saturday
The enemy left his position in front of our works last night.
9 a.m. a portion of our Brigade started out to learn their position. Came up with their rear guard just beyond Charlestown. There being only two squadrons of us they drew out a heavy skirmish line and pressed us back to the town. Co K charged their line but being overpowered by them was forced to retire losing two men, Serg't Martin and Kil....
Camped close to town.

August 28, Sunday
Six a.m. our battalion advanced through the town and drove the enemy pickets back some two miles We changed positions several times during the day.
Afternoon we advanced on the pike as far as Middletown. Found the first Division occupying one end of the town and the Rebs the other. The town was on fire.
Returned to the breastworks and camped for the night.

August 29, Monday
Six a.m. left the Smithfield pike and joined the Brigade on the Berryville pike. Heavy cannonading in the direction of Smithfield. Our forces are reported to have fallen back near Charlestown.
One p.m. we left the pike and moved up on the Winchester road as far as Haynes Station. All quiet with us with the exception of a little picket shooting just at dusk on a picket north of the Station.

August 30, Tuesday
Summit Point or Haynes Station.
Forenoon two squadrons of Coles' Cav made an advance beyond our picket and were driven back through the lines. The enemy in turn was driven back by our advance guard, losing 4 killed, several wounded and five prisoners. Our loss was 2 killed and 2 wounded.
Afternoon we passed over to the Smithfield pike near the town.
Gen. Merrit's forces moved to our left.

August 31, Wednesday
Front of Smithfield.
All quiet today. Scarce a shot has been fired. Afternoon made an attempt to capture a picket post. Armstrong led the charge and failed to gain his point.
Mail today.

September 1, Thursday
Very quiet today. Notwithstanding we were ordered to be ready to move at 3:30 a.m. Afternoon the 2nd Maryland made an advance and drove the enemy's picket beyond the Opequan. Held the position a short time then retired to the town, the enemy following us. They gained their breastworks and heavy skirmish took place. We charged their lines but gained nothing.
5 p.m. returned to our old position.

September 2, Friday
Drew three days rations.
Sent my watch away for a crystal.
Afternoon a scout arrived from Gen. Averill reporting that they had routed the enemy near Bunkerhill and captured nearly all his train.
4:30 p.m. our Reg't moved beyond the town (Smithfield).
Evening crossed over to Summit Point. Our forces occupy Atlanta.

September 3, Saturday
Summit Point.
9 a.m. advanced as far as the Opequan Creek.
Found the enemy in force. Returned to our old position under heavy skirmish firing.
Evening, heavy firing in the direction of Berryville.

September 4, Sunday
Forenoon our Squadron together with one squadron of the 2nd Md advanced as far as the Creek. Exchanged a few shots with the enemy and retired to within one mile of the Point. Formed a skirmish line and remained here til 6 p.m. then returned to Camp.
Rec. letter from Sue.

September 5, Monday
Stormy today.
Forenoon, changed our camp to the woods.
Wrote to Sue.
Draft commences today - 500,000 more troops called for.

September 6, Tuesday
Stormy day.
All quiet along the lines.
Evening, report came to Camp the rebs were advancing. Our Reg't advanced as far as the picket line. Formed close column. Remained one hour and then returned to Camp.
Remailed a letter to
Miss Carrie F. Hamlin
Hancock, Co.
Franklin, Maine

September 7, Wednesday
Weather fine and pleasant.
All quiet along the lines.
Afternoon we were at Sack's Ford. Attempted to cross but finding the enemy too strong, retired after some skirmishing.
Losses - One Capt killed and two men wounded.
Arrived back at camp 9 p.m.

September 8, Thursday
Stormy today.
Changed Camp. Left Summit Pt. and moved near Sheridan's Headquarters.
The old Brigade is broken up and we are brigaded with 1st and 2nd Regulars. The 8th Corps moved to Summit Pt.

September 9, Friday
Drew rations. (2 days)
Afternoon, made an attempt to .... the mill on the Opequan. No success. Rec. letter from John.

September 10, Saturday
Nothing of interest today.
About noon the enemy advanced a small force which created an alarm. Some cannonading was heard.
Afternoon, they retired and all was quiet again, and there is a fair prospect of another night in ....
(This entry was left incomplete.)

September 11, Sunday
Heavy showers since last evening.
Remained in Camp til 7 p.m. then we relieved the pickets.
Drew three days rations
Drew one pair boots $3.25
Drew one pair socks 20
Drew one pair Draws 90
 
 
Epilogue
The September 11, 1864 notation was the last entry by Valorus Dearborn. The following day at Opequan Creek during a skirmish, Corporal Dearborn lost his life. These events are described in detail by George W. Towle, also a member of the California Hundred who survived the War and later wrote his own account of his experiences during the conflict. His original manuscript is held by the Bancroft Library at the University of California in Berkley.
As recounted by Towle, Co. A drew their mounts into line on the south bank of Opequan Creek where they began receiving fire from enemy sharpshooters positioned in the neighboring woods. Towle who was located beside Valorus described the following: 
"Dearborn was shot through the right temple....and fell off his horse....but his horse kept its place in the ranks."

Towle's awareness of the futility of the confrontation and the loss of his friend and fellow trooper may have prompted his description of the skirmish as a needless loss of life. His final comment, "Dearborn was in every sense of the word a fine man and a good soldier."

Valorus Dearborn was born in 1840 to a Quaker family in Maine. He reached 5'9" in height, was light in complexion with hazel eyes and brown hair. He learned the trade of a carpenter and while serving in the Cavalry often made his services useful to other soldiers and officers by constructing bunks, corrals, and even shelters. He seems to have been frugal with his money, as he kept careful records of his expenditures and often made loans to other troopers.

There are no surviving relatives to clarify the events that brought Valorus to California in the months preceding the war. Any information from Sue Brackett, the girl he loved, was no doubt lost long ago. Valorus mentions having "mailed to Mary" his diary for the year 1863. It is likely that Mary was his older sister but to this date, no success has been found in locating her ancestors. It is known that Joseph Dearborn, an older brother to Valorus and a man of "unusual energy and business enterprise" traveled to California via Panama in May of 1861. Later that same year, Valorus joined him in California, perhaps to seek his fortune before returning to Massachusetts to marry Sue. The onset of the war seems to have changed his plans.

Valorus appears to have become caught up in the Cause and was selected from the hundreds of applicants in California, to muster in as a member of the storied California Hundred, eventually joining the 2nd Mass Cavalry. His enlistment was under the direction of J. Sewall Reed, with whom he appears to have become friends.

The initial months of his military service were intermittently boring or filled with excitement and action. His diary describes his daily life well. Some days "all quiet in camp" was sufficient. Yet on others, he filled the small page with his description of events, only to continue his account by turning the diary upside down to write between the lines in the opposite direction, a writing method common to the battlefront where paper was scarce. His sense of humor surfaces occasionally, his love of country and belief in the cause were always evident, but underlying all was a measure of sadness over the War. This may have been most evident on the day his much admired commanding officer, Captain J. Sewall Reed was killed, his remains brought back to camp "stripped of everything but his undershirt and draws." His resolve appears with his entry on the day after the Battle of the Wilderness as he journeyed to Locust Grove to collect the wounded. Upon his arrival at the grisly scene, he states emphatically, "If any doubt the bravery of our boys, let them visit this place."

Dearborn appears to have been somewhat homesick, which is to be expected from a lad of 23 who is witnessing the terrible scenes of war. His lamenting the absence of mail and his love affair with Sue Brackett provide a glimpse into his innermost thoughts. His longing to see Sue again, his mention of his dream where he gazed at her from afar with his presence undisclosed, and then his application for a furlough which was never granted all help us to know him better.

He was promoted to Corporal on June 2, 1864 and witnessed some difficult fighting while serving in the 2nd Massachusetts Cavalry. As noted above, he was mortally wounded at Opequan Creek on September 12, 1864 and died the following day in a field hospital. His remains and doubtless his journal and other personal effects were to be shipped home to Massachusetts at government expense. Thus, in a manner of speaking, Valorus Dearborn finally did come home, not as he had planned, but as one more "brave and noble heart erased from the book of time."